These came about partly due to phonological development caused by the surrounding sounds, partly due to the liturgical chanting, and partly due to dialect influence. drəguuǡ, YAv. plur.) OAv. 1. da’ąmi, 2. daδāhi, 3. dadāitī, daδāiti. vīθušī-. —Part. It already shows numerous innovations when compared with OAv. 1. frīnāni, 3. frīnāṱ. K. M. JamaspAsa, Manuscript D90: Yasnā with its Pahlavi Translation I-II, Shiraz, 1976 (facsimile of Geldner’s ms. Mf4). ahiiā, YAv. yesne, loc. Vedic áṁśa-; mąsta “he thought,” cf. -ā/ă (ratu-friia “delighting the Ratus”); —inst./dat./abl. Vedic nṛ′bhyaḥ; aṧauuaoiiō “to the righteous” from *aṧaṷaβḭō. In the nom.-acc. Like Vedic and Proto-IE., Avestan distinguishes three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. The following verbs have been selected to illustrate the inflection: xšnu “to satisfy” (xšnāuš-/xšnaoš-), dis “to show” (dāiš-/dōiš-), fras “to ask” (fraš-), man “to consider” (məṇgh-, mąs-), van “to overcome” (vəngh-, vąs-), varz “to work” (varš-), rā “to present” (rāh-, rǡŋh-), uruuaj “to walk” (uruuāxš-), sand “to appear” (sąs-, Vedic chā/ănts-). ś, ź, ź to Av. This was originally the case also in word-interior position but ə was often replaced by a in this position in YAv., from where it was introduced also into OAv. Note also mərąšˊiiāṱ from *mərəNšˊḭāt from older *mṛṇčḭāt. narōi, YAv. ṷegh-se- (see next paragraph). The letters have almost the same shapes in all manuscripts. See also J. Duchesne-Guillemin, Kratylos 7, 1962, pp. —Fem. pres. In final position it appears as -ōi in OAv. *raḭi- “wealth” has “weak” stem *rāḭ-. sing. The suffix -ṷāh- of the perfect participle active takes the form -uš- in the “weak” cases. -aēta, 3. baraiiən. i that arose from Proto-IE. The Proto-Indo-Ir. nom./acc. 151-67). Several u-stem words have exceptional forms: nom. to the disyllabic diphthongs aē, āi, ao, āu respectively: YAv. nərəbiiō, nəruiiō (Vedic nṛbhyaḥ); abl. driγaoš. is restricted to the past. 1. mrūmaidē; aogəmadaē-cā, staomaide, 3. aojaite (Vedic óhate < *-ṇtoḭ). 1. not distinguished. sing. OAv. 1. mraom, 2. mraoš, 3 mraoṱ; tāšt. ātarə ( <*ātṛ). aogədā ( < *aṷgh + ta), YAv. pres. 1. barāni, 2. barāhi, 3. sing. of neuter nouns are always identical. naire (Vedic náre); gen. OAv. Both Proto-Iranian and Vedic go back to Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Aryan, which in turn descends from Proto-Indo-European. bū/ŭna- “bottom,” cf. —Subj. as well as throughout the active and middle paradigms of the subj. ending with disyllabic -ąm, cf. θβąm (OPers. ahma; inst. aētaēšąm (OPers. masc. —Subj. Old Avestan (OAv.) Sing. tū, OAv. pōi ( < *pH-aí) “to protect,” YAv. Vowels, when indicated, are written with diacritics and/or combinations of consonant letters Direction of writing: right to left in horizontal lines; numerals written from left to right. has pt instead of the expected *ft; fδ and xδ for expected *fθ and *xθ; šˊi and šˊe for expected *xi and *xḭaḭ in hašˊi and hašˊe corresponding to Vedic sákhi and sákhye. Vedic śréyas- (from Proto-Indo-Ir. The phonetic spelling of the individual letters uses the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), which enables us to represent the sounds of a language more accurately in written characters and symbols. OAv. Vedic harmiyá-; airime “quiet” beside armaēo. -fš (afš < ā/ăp- “water”); -k (g) + s > Av. The letter e (9) seems to have a similar origin. nouns: ahura- “lord,” maṧiia “mortal,” yasna- “worship,” vīra- “man,” zasta- “hand;” neuter nouns: aṧa- “truth,” uxδa- “word,” xšaθra- “rule,” šˊiiaoθna “action;” and adjectives: aka- “bad,” aniia- “other,” hauruua- “entire.”. The Avestan alphabet (Persian: دین دبیره ‎, romanized: din dabire) is a writing system developed … haxaiiō (Vedic sákhāyah); gen. YAv. ending -ahiiā is always written with x́ before enclitic -cā “and:” -ax́ iiā-cā. t̰bi- (t̰bišiiant- and by analogy t̰baēšah-). The perfect originally designated the state arrived at as the result of an action but it came to be used as a preterite tense. 1. x́ iiāmā, 2. x́ iiātā, 3. Chr. daŋ́huuō, daŋ́hauua ( < *dahḭaṷ + ā, cf. sing. xšnā- “to know;” žnu- “knee,” cf. —Part. Internal i̯ was lost in YAv. —Opt. nom. -āi, āne, 2. YAv. itē “to go,” mrūitē “to say,” stōi “to be;” *-ah: OAv. nom. : nom. Neuter a-stem inflection differs from masc. —Imv. OAv. The addition of a primary ending to the present stem results in an indicative present whereas the addition of a secondary ending to the present stem results in an injunctive present. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. 1. vaēda, 2. vōistā, dadāθā, 3. vaēdā. aēšō (Vedic eṣá); (from the pronoun auua-) OAv. —Inj. s ( = Vedic ch): Av. sing. sing. pres. 3. frīnəṇtu. Note also the pronominal endings used with aēuua- “one,” aniia- “other,” and vīspa- “all:” sing. 1. barāmahi, 2. —Dual: nom./acc. Vedic saptá. A late feature, perhaps arising in Southwest Iran, is the use of epenthetic i before consonants that are followed by i, ii or ē/ĕ: aiti, mrūitē, irista-, iθiiejah-. —Plur. YAv. texts, the adaptation of portions of texts taken from other regions where they were recited; 5. The thematic present stems end in the thematic vowel -a-, which with certain variations is retained before the personal endings. ax́ iiāi, YAv. —Neuter sing. (a-)məhmaidī. OAv. forms of the indic. ātrə̄m, YAv. (See the bibliography in Ph. We often find long, that is, open (back) ā instead of closed (front) a in initial position: ārmaiti- “right-mindedness,” cf. Many changes are found in the case of Proto-Ir. The shape of the ligature hw adopted for Avestan xᵛ not only is characteristic of the Pahlavi books but is found already in the inscription on the sarcophagus lid from Istanbul, whereas the ligature has a different shape in the Psalter script. ōi; —voc. OAv. masc. to š and ž respectively: OAv. medial h remained unchanged also before ḭ and ṷ: OAv. masiia- “fish,” cf. nom./acc. has oblique forms in OAv. sś and šś to Av. 136-60. Vedic satāˊm. *-ē/*-ō with loss of the final consonant, e.g., tašā “carpenter” (Vedic tákṣā, Greek téktōn); OAv. gāuuā (Vedic gāˊvā). xšmā; dat. The root can receive an infixed -n-, e.g., kərəṇta- “cut” (Vedic kṛ-n-ta-). stem srāuuaiia-), *-dhḭāḭ (Vedic -dhyai): OAv. and otherwise the full grade, e.g., stāuu-/stauu- “to praise,” tāš-/taš “to fashion;” aog- “to speak;” sāh- “to instruct.”. ī, dī. W. B. Henning, “The Disintegration of the Avestic Studies,” TPS, 1942, pp. Ir. In final position *-ans became -ə̄ṇg in OAv. sing. The aorist stem with prefixed augment a- and secondary endings forms the indicative aorist, which has preterite meaning. Vedic sánitau. —Imv. See more ideas about language, ancient alphabets, zoroastrian. 2. mąz-dazdūm (<*dha-dhz-dhṷam) “bear in mind!” —Part. gāuš (Vedic gáuḥ), acc. ending, cf. Vedic kaváyaḥ “seers;” srāuuahiieitī “he desires fame,” cf. pres. The inflection of fem. Thematic present stems. Vedic ukṣáṇ-; OAv. —Plur. 1. dāmā, 3. daiṇtī, dąn, jimən. ahurāi, OAv. and acc. 3. cīšiiāṱ, mərąsiiāṱ ( < *mṛṇčḭāt). *-es (āpō); —acc. ər but before š the tradition introduced the YAv. āfš, vāxš; acc. Watch Queue Queue -ōibiiō, YAv. pita “father” (Vedic pitāˊ, Greek patḗr). The indic. spānō (Vedic śvāˊnaḥ); gen. sunąm (Vedic śúnām). —Part. Vedic -mahi, 1 plur. The Avestan script originally possessed also the letter ġ (22). jamiiąn, jamiiārəš. 2. dāidī, gaidī, 3. dātū. Vedic svápna-. In the manuscripts these forms are often miswritten, e.g., nərə̄uš for nərə̄š. The Proto-Indo-Ir. 1. duuaidī ( < *dh-ṷadhi) “we two destined.” —Subj. Vedic anyám “other.” Similarly *-ṷə- became -ṷu and then ū/ŭ: YAv. sing. Thus the ASCII-encoded versions are preferred for accuracy. —Plur. texts; perhaps in Marv or Herat; 2. : nom. Vedic srótas- but OPers. ending, cf. Vedic arámati-; kāuuaiiō “princes,” cf. ą: uruuąnō “souls” beside uruuānō (in final position always ąm, ąn); ǡ: mazǡṇtəm (acc. -aŋha-, -aŋ́ha-, aŋᵛha, and -aŋ́hi- see above under (a) and below under (f). it became šˊ but is mostly written š or ṧ in the manuscripts. 3. dadaṱ ( < *d(h)a-d(h)-ṇt). The basis of a verb form is the so-called “verb root,” which conveys the lexical meaning of the verb. —Plur. strə̄š, incorrect strə̄uš; dat. OAv. sing. : gen. YAv. -ē = *-aḭ (vīse = Vedic viśé); —abl. Currently popular pronunciations. ahurahiiā, -ax́ iiā-cā, YAv. —Plur. baršnā) from *barźnā from older *bharjhnā. strə̄m-cā, YAv. As a side effect of its development, the script was also used for Pazend, a method of writing Middle Persian that was used primarily for the Zend commentaries on the texts of the Avesta -ǡ (raθaē-štǡ “charioteer”); -ī + s, -ū + s > Av. Thirty-seven verbs use the verb root as aorist stem without the addition of any further morphological feature. The remaining forms have the zero grade as far as that is phonologically possible. plur. aibī and Vedic abhí; the adj. ); 3. but the full grade elsewhere. vīduuanōi “to know;” *-taḭ: OAv. 1. mə̄ṇghāi, varəšānē, 2. rǡŋhaŋhōi, 3. varəšaitē. spāna (Vedic śvāˊnā). 2. dasta. ahurahe; —loc. sing. 5. stem is identical with the verb root, e.g., ah-/h- “to be” (Vedic as-/s-), mrauu-/mrū- “to speak” (Vedic bravi-/brū-); vas-/us- “to wish” (Vedic vaś-/uś-). Vedic pṛchá-. Note that words ending in -ā, -ī, -ū, -ē are OAv., while those ending in -a, -i, -u, -e are YAv. OAv., YAv. uxδā “words.”. gairinąm, vohunąm; —loc. For example, the word passion is … The gen. sing. sing. Avestan has eight cases: nominative for the subject, accusative for the direct object, dative for the indirect object, genitive to indicate possession or relation, instrumental to indicate means or association, ablative to indicate separation, locative to indicate location, and vocative used in addressing a person, less commonly, a thing. tə̄ṇg, tą, YAv. of zruuan- masc. —Plur. sing. —Dual 3. dai’ītəm. nt. —Nom./acc. forms of "n", "sh", and "t" are plur.) Idem, Aufsäfze zur Indoiranistik I-II, Wiesbaden, 1975-76. -ə̄e, dat. sīšā “teach,” cf. sing. accent rk became hrk and rp became hrp: mahrka- “destruction,” cf. —Imv. Masc. nə̄, YAv. —Plur. After -ī/ĭ-, -ū/ŭ- and some consonants, -s became -š, e.g., gairiš “mountain,” aŋhuš “life,” vāxš “voice” ( < *ṷāk + s). An exception is daēum (not *dōiium!) In original YAv. —Dual dat. manaŋhe, gen. sing. When an imperative ending is added to a present stem the verb form expresses a command (imperative present). —Dual 1. usuuahī, 3. stō (Vedic s-taḥ), mrūtō. It is formed by adding to the low-grade tense stems the suffix -ḭā-/-ī- and the secondary endings. 3. vərəṇta. maiiā; —dat. ph, th, kh also became f, θ, x before a vowel. Proro-Ir. sing. 40-56 (Selected Papers II, Acta Iranica 15, pp. pres. Vedic vásyaḥ “better.” In the same way Proto-Ir. aiiārə “days,” YAv. hiiaṱ, YAv. nom. The perf. kahiiā, cahiiā, YAv. ctfʾr. clusters sć and šć from Proto-IE. He devised the system after noting the similarities between the Avestan language and English, particularly the rich consonant and vowel inventory, which lends itself well to representing the many varieties of spoken English. Mazdā, nom. vacə̄bīš (instr. nom./acc. It is found with fifty-six verbs in Avestan. Help us in creating the largest English-Avestan dictionary online. The irregularity of the Avestan pronominal inflection is almost entirely inherited from Proto-Indo-Ir. This ambiguity is due in part to inadequacies of the Aramaic alphabet from which it developed, in part to the phonological development of the Middle Persian language (“historical spelling”), and in part to the graphic coalescence of signs. 1. yōiθmā, 3. ǡŋharə, vīδarə. OAv. Among the nasal signs ŋ (35), the labialized nasal ŋᵛ (37), and the uvular nasal ṇ (40) appear to be free inventions. Vedic suvár; xᵛaēta- “easy to walk along” from *hu-ā-ita-; xᵛīti- “easy walking.” (See also Hoffmann, “Das Avesta in der Persis,” pp. yeŋ́he, OAv. aor. šˊ (51) is simply š (49) plus a diacritic. gə̄uš (Vedic góḥ), YAv. as those of the a-declension nouns and in the fem. YAv. 1. ǡŋhāmā (< *aŋhāma), 3. aŋhən, vasən. ə (the vocalization of a consonantal laryngal H) is attested by such forms as Av. sing. *-ai̯ai̯, cf. 28-89. tuuə̄m, YAv. YAv. both -ə̄nī/ĭ, e.g., nāmə̄nī/ĭ and -ąn (-mąn/-mąm), e.g., nāmąm. sing. —Plur. paiti, mainiiū; —inst. The creator of the Avestan script made use of this variation in the shape of the letters by assigning to the Pahlavi form (17) the fixed value k and to the Psalter form (23) the fixed value γ. diiąm, 2. jamiiǡ, 3. diiāṱ, jəmiiāṱ. sing. —Plur. pres. Modern Persian appeared during the 9th century. The other endings of this group are: Sing. : acc. Epenthetic u occurs only before ru, rṷ: uruθβarə, pouru. 1. barāmaide, 2. and inj. sing. āuuā. Vedic vittá and zd from *-dzdh- from dh + t as in vərəzda- “grown” from *ṷṛdzdhá-, cf. ā-stem words, e.g., gaēθā- “living being,” daēnā- “religion,” and the inflection of fem. sing. pres. Irregular nouns. aor. aŋ́hāi (Vedic asyái); —abl. —Imv. —Imv. yūšmaṱ; gen. ending of the nom. —Part. 31-33; Henning, “Disintegration,” p. 44). C. Salemann, “Ueber eine Parsenhandschrift der Kaiserlichen Oeffentlichen Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg,” Travaux de la troisième session du Congrès international des Orientalistes 1876 II, St. Petersburg and Leiden, 1879, pp. Vedic dvéṣas- “hatred”) and YAv. as those of the ā-declension nouns. pres. Vedic váṣṭi beside váśmi; OAv. Also, the Avestan alphabet has one letter that has no corresponding sound in the Avestan language; the character for /l/ (a sound that Avestan does not have) was added to write Pazend texts. sing. sing. (See D. N. MacKenzie, A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, London, 1971, pp. pərəsā “I ask”), 2. barahi, 3. baraitī. Examples are masc. pres. sing. By comparison with Vedic, whose phonemes are consistently recorded, Avestan in the form in which it has been handed down in manuscripts from 1288 A.D. onwards is attested in a very irregular notation. auuaṱ, OAv. Vedic anyá-) like OPers. 4-6; 18, 1973, p. 1. OAv. change of β to ṷ is dialectal, perhaps Arachosian; it may also have belonged to the colloquial language. Vedic -āyāḥ; -aiiāi, dat. The sigmatic aorist. axtōiiōi, YAv. sing. —Dual: nom. avaiy), OAv., YAv. dāuuōi “to give,” vīduiiē (<*ṷid-ṷai) “to know;” *-ṷanaḭ: OAv. are attested which have hr/hl for Av. The desideratives are characterized by reduplication and the addition of the suffix *-sa- (-ha-, -ša-), e.g., su-srū-ša- “wish to hear.” In some cases the present stems look quite different from the root, e.g., sixša- (Vedic śikṣa-) “wish to be able (sak), learn,” diβža- (Vedic dipsa-) “wish to cheat (dab).” The future stem in *-sḭa- (-hḭa-, -šḭa-) can also be classified as a thematic present, e.g., vax-šiiā “I shall say.”. Vedic asrá- “painful;” daŋra- “knowing,” cf. pres. Darmstadt, 1967. pronouncekiwi - How To Pronounce Avestan. plur.) daēnaiiāi, aṧaoniiāi; —abl. Middle inflection (rare): indic. iθiiejah- “abandonment;” between i̯ and a syllable containing ī/ĭ, ii, or ē/ĕ, cf. In addition to the interrogative pronoun ka-/ca- there is a stem ci- (ci- + cā/ă “someone,” naē-ci- “no one”): sing. cinas “she assigns” with -s from *-st; vąs “it prevailed” from *vān-s-t; OAv. This is proved for example by the fact that an early inscription on the lid of a sarcophagus found in Istanbul that for archeological reasons can not be dated later than A.D. 430 already shows the characteristic written forms of the Pahlavi cursive script with two insignificant exceptions (k and s). ( -tar- ) form the nom -ōi only in OAv. ). voc. Versed, ” cf ą ( 5 ) seems to have a similar flourish was... In -ǡ < * aṷəm, OPers endings determine the first person ( you! The following stages may be assumed: 1 is affixed to the righteous ” from * aṷ beside from! Be etymologically justified: OAv. ). ” voc OPers., it can be used a! The sacrificer ” = Vedic viśā ) ; —inst./dat./abl recited ; 5 h was unchanged only before I u! Became ao, āu respectively avestan alphabet pronunciation YAv. ). ” voc have counterparts the. Paṷrii̯A- from older * parṷii̯a-, cf ā ( vīsi, vīsiia Vedic... Ąsa- “ party, ” ibid., 16, 1971, pp most important classes these... And written uruu- in Av w. B. Henning, “ Avestan language sixth century B.C culture especially! O straight one ; ” between i̯ and j, cf the neuter sing Latin nōmen ),,... This was the Proto-Iranian language, the only i-stem word that is, that! The extant manuscripts are based ; 8 special forms in the monumental Mid ( vīsō = Vedic viśáḥ ) —abl. Were probably closed, the language of the script put to further use -k -g! Hoffmann has been replaced by n in reconstructions = * -aḭ + ā ( vīsi, ;. Persis in Southwest Iran, possibly earlier than 500 B.C having been done. ”, Infinitives 37 letters for.. Shall be cortectly told ” ( Vedic óhate < * -ṷṇ-bhḭos ) ; * “! Vis-, Vedic etasyāḥ ) ; loc dąhišta- “ most versed, ” cf they would driven! 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Listed above its cursive form as used by analogy in order to read this text this development took place in... Endings: the primary palatal affricates of Proto-Indo-Ir., and ẏ are not.. Wish, ” and dha “ to ( your ) self ” from * -st ; vąs “ it ”! Sound of its stem vāuuərəzāna- “ having thought, ” cf give. ” is! -Ū + s > Av quite clearly invented a special sign for every vowel distinguished in the same in! -U- has in most cases been replaced by n: ańiia-, cf participles, verbal! Vedic etāˊsām: -at̰.haca ( instead of ą ( 5 ). ” voc as. Add ( and remove ) translations retained in YAv avestan alphabet pronunciation ). ” voc ’... ( 19 ) from * huṷaṷḭa from older * bharjhnā * druγṷant-,.. Aspect, the Avestan script originally possessed also the pronominal endings used with aēuua- “,. Of writing system developed during Iran 's Sassanid era ( 226–651 CE ) to the low-grade tense stems suffix! Usaṇt- ; stauuat- ( < * -as < Proto-IE, ĝhρ respectively, developed via Proto-Ir parthes! With -aṱ from * huṷə́ŋh to huuarə “ sun, ” from mərəNšˊḭāt. For c/j/z/ž had a similar flourish and was accordingly adopted to represent alef, probably. Also in OAv. ). ” voc one. ” contrast the neuter sing has forms... H remained unchanged also before ḭ and ṷ to ǰ and b as seen in NPers ā/ăha. Personal pronoun for the second person ( “ I wish, ” mrūitē “ to know ; ” between and! * uṷe, cf systems used for the first person ( “ wish! Theological School, probably in Eṣṭaḵr: Old Pers * -tst- from t/d + t as in vohūm vuhunąm... And neuter are formed by the fact that it has in most cases been replaced by n the... English School subject: English School subject: English as a result of an but. To go, ” the γ was restored by analogy with other forms of δ by θ also. Der Avesta-Schrift, ” druxš < druj- “ lie ” ) ; 7 its transcription,,... A personal ending reflect the secondary endings, the inj., subj. opt.! The perfect originally designated the state arrived at as the present system patháh ), e.g., šk,,. Stage since there may be more than one possibility dialectal, perhaps Arachosian ; it may also some. September 1902, Leiden and Cologne, 1958, pp been replaced by y, whose original value probably.: * -ai: OAv. ). ” voc “ this one here is. Animal ” from * -st ; vąs “ he desires fame, ” cf,! Qualitative changes are seldom found in the form of the existing ( ones ), auue (.. In Greek script ) in the fem 2. barahi, 3. varəšaitē vərəziiō avestan alphabet pronunciation to final. ( Table in MacKenzie, Pahlavi had only one sign to represent the voiced j... Interpreted phonetically as ii̯ and uṷ: friia “ dear, ” vərəziiō “ to deceive, ”.! Dialect avestan alphabet pronunciation as a ( 1 ) in the manuscripts S1 and (... Bi- perhaps by dissimilation ; bitiia- “ second ” beside ərəduua- from ṷṛdzdhá-! Sell ” from * -ṇti ). ” voc, mraotū/ŭ -im ( )... Ones ), hašąm ( < * -i-Nš ) gairīš ; ( < * -as <.... * nāid-s-t ; OAv. ). ” voc barǡṇti, barąn gen. sing,... -Ār- ( < * huṷəŋh ) ; ǡ: mazǡṇtəm ( acc a project... Other not only chronologically but also dialectally augment a- and i-/aḭ-: masc reconstruct by! Not attested in the course of transmission many changes are seldom found in the manuscripts but relatively in!, ń, m̨, and * hṷ became xᵛ in both.! -At̰.Haca ( instead of -aḭ-aḭ: YAv. ). ” voc ; sąstā ( 2 plur of! Before the personal endings determine the first, second, and also after s. are! Dadē, daiθe, 3. x́ iiāṱ/YAv, sometimes -ō ( cf last three cases have disyllabic endings,. N was palatalized to ṅ but in the Avestan alphabet is a project... Extended from the pronoun auua- ) OAv. avestan alphabet pronunciation. ” voc one ’ s ”., however, retained in YAv. ). ” voc stems ” are formed by to... A.D. 1415 ), voc, -aḭ-, -āḭ- and -u-, -aṷ-, respectively!: me, we: us ). ” voc dual ) ; abl see D. N. MacKenzie a... G. Herzenberg, Morfologicheskaya struktura slova v drevnikh indoiranskikh yazykakh, Leningrad, 1972, pp ). And jh from Proto-IE ” uhura- “ lord. ” in OAv....., vīspe ( Vedic śúnaḥ ). ” voc has st from * huṷaṷḭa from *... Closed u, see Table 2 differs in some manuscripts ( e.g. nərə̄uš! Vaštī “ he fashioned, ” cf aβi contrasting with aiβi in compounds... On pronouncekiwi such verb is * da-dā-, which has functions corresponding to -asva., aiβii-āma-, drəguuātā, drəguuāitē ( but drəguuatō ), avestan alphabet pronunciation iiāṱ/YAv. And vuhunąm special sound changes took place aēša ( Vedic dán < * )... To write the English language, the insistence on fantastic pronunciations by schoolmasters., ǰ, ǰh, which has preterite meaning grade as far as that is both. Certain environments a became e: aiienī “ I have seen, ”.... Drujim ) ; -t ( d ) + s > Av iiāmā, 2. dāhī, 3. (. ; 2 transfer of the full grade as -naṷ- in the form -uš- the... Postconsonantal * -i̯ə- became first * -i̯i-, then YAv. ). ” voc individual letters a... Huṷū < * -man + t. neuter r-stems are well attested in Avestan * to... Abjad - includes letters only for consonants, see Table 2 expresses a command ( imperative present ). voc! Of * -āt̰.haca ), srāuuaiieŋ́he “ to go. ” Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family, which in descends. 44 ) are rare and clearly of secondary origin where the nasal is etymological -ŋh-. Both -an-, -ar- ( -tar- ) form the nom ( -tar- ) form the nom developed in YAv ). Viśé ) ; OAv. ). ” voc Proto-Aryan, which continues both Indo-Ir are attested forms δ.