Plato became disillusioned with both the _____ and the _____. _____ is the virtue associated with the guardians. The history of Western philosophy has been dominated by _____. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! A complete explanation of any material change will use all four causes. Aristotle agreed with his teacher Plato on all major philosophical matters. a rare human being whose very nature represents something elemental about the human condition, is defined as the interest of the stronger party. Although there were Greek philosophers before their respective births, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the only three worth focusing on during this period. According to Plato, "knowledge of particulars" _____. Aristotle was accused of one of the same charges leveled against Socrates-not respecting the gods of the state. It comes from the Greek énteron, meaning “intestine.”. See more. Gorgias 2. Philosophy Test 4. ancient Greek times) was largely dominated by the prominent theory of hedonism (Kesebir & Diener, 2008). A Look at the Philosophy of Happiness. The problem of universals goes back to Plato and Aristotle. 348 BCE), who himself had been a student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE). Our main sources of information concerning Protagoras are: 1. The Greek word is aition (plural aitia); sometimes it takes a feminine form, aitia (plural aitiai). Everything that happens to you has a reason—but there’s a … According to Aristotle, _____ is that which makes a thing what it is. _____ refers to the subjective mental acceptance that a claim is true. According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the sensitive or sentient soul. Multiple Choice Questions on John 1:1-5. Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and lasted through the Hellenistic period (323 BC-30 BC). (A) It refers to the "inner urge" implanted by nature in all living things that compel them to realize their happiness and potential. the state of actualizing a things function. Entelechy, (from Greek entelecheia), in philosophy, that which realizes or makes actual what is otherwise merely potential. The definition is a conjunction of two terms which normally contradict each other, along with, in Greek, a qualifying clause which seems to make the contradiction inescapable. the function of education is to draw the truth out of the student. 15. Meaning and the Problem of Universals, A Kant-Friesian Approach. Although there were Greek philos… According to Plato, _____ changes but _____ is timeless. a Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. Aristotle's school contained the first important library in the West. Protagoras claimed that "all things are measured against nature's standard. Ethics is the area of philosophy that _____. _____ is what we think of today as a combination of the mind and soul. According to Plato, the seeds of tyranny are abuses of _____. C. In 1-2 sentences, state the philosophy of the following Sophists: 1. In regard to systems of government, Plato concluded that _____. And what we give in … Twenty-first century American culture bears no resemblance to the democratic state of Plato's Athens. _____. He was mentored by Plato and went on to become the mentor and tutor of Alexander the Great. According to Aristotle, a complete understanding of anything can only come from identifying its four causes. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. According to C. G. Jung, an archetype _____. Greek, Philosophers. Plato and Aristotle Similarities and Differences. What we know today as the writings of Aristotle _____. In Plato’s “ Simile of the Sun ” passage from his work “ Republic,” Plato used the idea of light as a necessary requirement of knowledge, in part, to disprove this particular philosophy that contended that knowledge was a function of perception. Socrates, born in Athens in 470 BC, is often credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. Socrates A. Greek philosophy covers an absolutely enormous amount of topics including: political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology (the study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality), logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics (branch of philosophy dealing with art, beauty, and taste). He wrote several works on the spiritual life and recodified the constitution of his order (1260). The body and the soul are not, as Plato would have it, two distinct entities, but are different parts or aspects of the same thing. Aristotle defines motion, by which he means change of any kind, as the actuality of a potentiality as such (or as movable, or as a potentiality -- Physics 201a 10-11, 27-29, b 4-5). Human beings contain a _____ that includes the nutritive and sensitive souls. _____ is an example of a sophistic technique mentioned in the text. "The unexamined life is not worth living" is a quote attributed to which famous philosopher? The pragmatic point of view holds that _____. a basic image that represents our conception of the essence of a certain type of person, is an image that has been shared by the whole human race from the earliest times. Which of the following most accurately. In the philosophy of Aristotle, the actualization of the potential form or function of a substance. See more. Another name for a paradigmatic individual is _____. Then, in the search box, enter the English meaning of the root you want to find; 82 terms. His philosophical foundations draw upon a … In Aristotelian terms, happiness is _____. The root entero-is used in many words related to the intestines, such as enterology (the branch of medicine dealing with the intestines). When Plato died, Aristotle was appointed head of the Academy. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher. [Late Latin entelechīa, from Greek entelekheia : entelēs, complete (en-, … T/F. Which Presocratic philosopher distinguished between appearance and reality in a way that contrasted apparent permanence with hidden reality? _____ is probably the most widely read work in Western philosophy. According to Aristotle, _____ has no distinct characteristics until its entelechy is actualized. T/F. Socrates insisted that the "real person" is not the body, but the psyche. One of the most durable and intractable issues in the history of philosophy has been the problem of universals.Closely related to this, and a major subject of debate in 20th century philosophy, has been the problem of the nature of the meaning.. Greek for "machine"; was a crane that could lift people over buildings as if they were coming down (ex: from heaven) ... OTHER QUIZLET SETS. Which of the following most accurately explains the importance of “ techne ” to the Greek Humanist philosophers? Plato divided the human soul into three parts: _____. The Socratic dialectic is an especially moving speech, one that raises powerful emotions. A complete explanation of any material change will use all four causes. The Republic concerns the search for _____. (A) It describes the “inner urge” implanted by nature in all living things. The two main sources of information about Socrates are _____. Socrates thought he possessed _____ wisdom. Aristotle is the first Western thinker of record to provide an adequate analysis of the _____ of change. From lowest to highest, the levels of awareness are _____. Yet St. Thomas Aquinas called it the only possible way to define motion by … Aristotle thought of happiness in terms of _____. Part of Aristotle’s point is that there is no one answer to this question. According to Aristotle, the ultimate goal or purpose for which a thing exists is known as its _____ cause. Greek philosophy is known for its undeniable influence on Western thought. In it, he says the mind or soul is the “first entelechy” of the body, the “cause and principle” of … It was the central doctrine of Aristotle’s philosophy of nature. The Greek word is aition (plural aitia); sometimes it takes a feminine form, aitia (plural aitiai). Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance.He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. In Platonic terms, a thing's _____ is what makes it what it is. Socrates asserted that a life devoid of philosophical speculation is not fully functioning and so lacks virtue or excellence. Both the sophos and Sophists were professional philosophers and teachers. Which philosophical archetype believes that any claim to knowledge must be personally verified by our own senses? two basic sections, each unevenly divided into two segments, illusion, informed opinion, deductive reasoning, and direct apprehension of the Good. Mental Health Exam 2. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! ): Believed sensory experience to be the basis of all knowledge, although the five senses and the common sense provided only the information from which knowledge could be derived. is the result of living a fully functioning life. According to the Greeks of Plato's time, happiness _____. Zeno was born in about 490 B.C.E. According to Plato, the ideal state meets three kinds of needs: _____. The Socratic method begins with the assumption that _____. The hyle is trying to be the perfect example of thing which the morphe represents, essential inside of the contingent, to find truths look at physical things, epistemological study in which ideas come from the mind, epistemological study in which ideas come from looking at things directly, any system that tends toward an end goal (achieve something), everything is imperfect unto itself but is redeemed in virtue by being a perfect part of a large something else = perfect universe/telos, whatever circumstance that prevents hyle from perfectly expressing unchanging morphe, term for aristotle's theory that all thing/ substance has hylo and morphe, associated with the hyle- could be anything, associated with the morphe because it's what the thing/ substance actually is, every substance/ thing is a teleological system because it has an inner morphe (form) and an outer hyle (matter), hyle is the basis for the system based upon that each individual object has its own hyle/ thisness = ability to tell apart individual objects. What did Socrates say about the unexamined life? The story of the Ring of Gyges concerns _____. Summary of Metaphysics by Aristotle. Philosophers demand that we provide feelings to justify our knowledge claims. In Plato's metaphysics, the highest level of reality consists of _____. Plato concluded that the solution to the basic problem of knowledge lay in acknowledging that _____. According to the Melchert text, we know about Socrates primarily, According to the Melchert text, in discussions with others, Socrates, agreement that a satisfactory answer hadn't been reached, According to the Melchert text, conversations with Socrates generally end with, According to the Melchert text, to benefit from a conversation with Socrates, you need to be, it is better than to suffer injustice than to do it. Which type of knowledge involves the accurate compilation and assessment of factual systematic information and relationships? 1. Socrates believed that an individual who is at the mercy of bodily pleasures has no concern for virtue in any form. According to Plato, particular kinds of _____ produce particular kinds of _____. The Renaissance view of nature began to take shape as antithetical to the Greek view in the work of Copernicus (1473-1543), Telesio (1508-88), and Bruno (1548-1600). According to Plato, democracy leads to _____. Philosophers distinguish between knowledge and wisdom. Plato's ____ illustrates the path from ignorance to enlightenment. Aristotle’s most famous teacher was Plato (c. 428–c. Entelechy. Hellenic history (i.e. Aristotle is commonly considered the inventor of teleology, although the precise term originated in the eighteenth century. 9. Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance.He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. In Greek philosophy, Eudaimonia means achieving the best conditions possible for a human being, in every sense–not only happiness, but also virtue, morality, and a meaningful life. According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the _____ soul. The mythical Gaia was the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth, the Greek version of "Mother Nature" (from Ge = Earth, and Aia = PIE grandmother), or the Earth Mother. This material appears in his ethical writings, in a systematic treatise on the nature of the soul (De anima), and in a number of minor monographs on topics such as sense-perception, memory, sleep, and dreams. Greek philosophy is known for its undeniable influence on Western thought. Happiness. ): Protagoras is a leading character in Plato's dialogue Protagoras and Protagoras' doctrines are discussed extensively in Plato's Theaetetus. Plato's dialogues, however, are a mixture of historical account and artistic license, much in the manner of the comic plays of the period. The Burial of the Count of Orgaz has long been considered one of El Greco's finest paintings. Part of Aristotle’s point is that there is no one answer to this question. For Aristotle, the body and soul are not two separate elements but are one thing. The Subject Matter of Aristotle’s Metaphysics. According to Plato, the disordered soul lacks a sense of _____. _____ holds onto a position regardless of the facts. Aristotle believed that the sensitive soul has the potential for deliberation. Surprising little is known of Protagoras' life with any certainty. Socrates considered himself to be a kind of _____. No longer does art reveal the world as it did for the Greeks; now it is merely one experience alongside others. a presocratic Greek philosopher who said that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion as all things are in perpetual flux (circa 500 BC) cosmos everything that exists anywhere; 'ordered whole'; harmonies and contrasting elements Hylomorphism, (from Greek hylē, “matter”; morphē, “form”), in philosophy, metaphysical view according to which every natural body consists of two intrinsic principles, one potential, namely, primary matter, and one actual, namely, substantial form. To label the Sophists as "amoral" would mean to say that they are "immoral. Describe the Greek social and cultural conditions in the time after Aristotle's death that gave rise to Skepticism, Cynicism, Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Christianity. occurs when we hold a belief regardless of the facts, "Nothing anyone can say will make me change my mind.". Greek art, he says, was an especially marvelous form of poiêsis lost to us in the modern construction of the aesthetic. By 479, the Persians were forced back into Asia Minor. A vital aspect of Socratic teaching was _____. Aristotle (384–322 B.C. Summary of Metaphysics by Aristotle. Plato, in his theory of forms, separates the sensible world (appearances) of the intelligible world (ideas) and the intelligible world was the only reality, the foundation of all truth. According to Plato, _____ is excellence of function of the whole. The strangeness of the word “entelechy” masks the contradiction between these two claims. Aristotilian system: entelechy of every substance of a teleological system- blob of stuff (Hyle) trying to be a perfect example of inside dwelling (morphe) teleological system any system that tends toward an end goal (achieve something) He was declared a doctor A "relativist" would be heard to say which of the following? According to Democritus, humans are capable of having a direct experience (perception) of atoms. For Plato, knowledge is always about _____. And what is an aition? In the philosophy of Aristotle, the actualization of the potential form or function of a substance. Aristotle believed in two levels of reality: the natural and the supernatural. In Plato’s “ Simile of the Sun ” passage from his work “ Republic,” Plato used the idea of light as a necessary requirement of knowledge, in part, to disprove this particular philosophy that contended that knowledge was a function of perception. Socrates thought that the first step toward wisdom _____. James Lovelock gave this name to his hypothesis after a suggestion from the novelist William Golding , who was living in the same village as Lovelock at the time ( Bowerchalke , Wiltshire , UK). However, since the dawn of time, philosophers have been pursuing the inquiry of happiness… after all, the purpose of life is not just to live, but to live ‘well’. Enteral definition, enteric. Socrates believed that _____ is the essence of humanness. The central point of this antithesis was the denial that the world of nature, the world studied by physical science, is an organism, and the assertion that it is devoid both of intelligence and of life. Socrates used _____ to communicate on more than one level. Hedonism is, to put it simply, the pursuit of pleasure as the only intrinsic good (Waterman, 1993). Which of the following most accurately explains the importance of “ techne ” to the Greek Humanist philosophers? The Sophists taught that good and bad are defined by nature. It was the central doctrine of Aristotle’s philosophy of nature. For Aristotle, _____ is that at which all things aim. Second, he referred to entelechy, which is “that which turns potential into reality.” Aristotle believed that everything happening to you today has a purpose because it turns you into the person you are becoming. Plato used the concept of a divided line to illustrate _____. greek term meaning "the realization of potential" Episteme. : The Iliad and The Odyssey dominated Greek life, for centuries the Bible or Koran of Greece and Rome – takes for granted Hesiod’s Theogony. The curriculum of th… The sophos were highly regarded by the communities in which they lived. both Heraclitus and Parmenides were correct in their efforts to characterize reality. As time went on, the last of these appellations was used exclusively. Study Flashcards On Core 250 Exam #1 at Cram.com. Athens experienced a cultural crisis brought on by its history of feeling superior and special, then being populated by outside entrepreneurs. Start studying Weekly Quiz on Aristotles Virtue Ethics. was invented to mock people who didn't speak greek. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato (420s-340s BCE) did a lot to change the way we think about the world, in everything from mathematics to ethics to logic. in Elea, now Velia, in southern Italy; and he died in about 430 B.C.E. The belief that values reflect the preferences and customs of a given culture is known as _____. Thomas (Thomas Theorem) IV. We must achieve an understanding of Aristotle’s word entelechia , the heart of his definition of motion, in order to see that what it says cannot be said just as well by such a word as “transition.” written 500 years after fall of Troy, and offers formulaic descriptions of Greek life. chies 1. From its early reception by the Toledans, who undoubtedly held this tributary painting in high regard, to the contemporary critics and visitors who still flock in droves to see this masterpiece, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz has generally been received with overwhelming praise. According to Aristotle, the lowest level of soul is the sensitive or sentient soul. Here, you'll find the meanings of all the Greek and Latin root words commonly used in constructing biological and medical terminology. Start studying philosophy Ch.6. In Metaphysics Α.1, Aristotle says that “all mensuppose what is called wisdom (sophia) to deal with the firstcauses (aitia) and the principles (archai) ofthings” (981b28), and it is these causes and principles that heproposes to study in this work. ", According to Aristotle, _____ answers the question "What is this?". ", The term "ethnocentrism" derives from Greek roots meaning "_____.". The four causes are: _____. _____. Who informed Socrates that he … Plato thought that rule by the many _____. In some philosophical systems, a vital force that directs an organism toward self-fulfillment. Entelechy is Greek for "soul." 15. explains the importance of "entelechy" to the Greek Humanist philosopher Aristotle? Acomment on these descriptions will help to clarify Aristotle’stopic. Practical knowledge consists of skills needed to do such things as play the piano or bake a cake. Argot definition, a specialized idiomatic vocabulary peculiar to a particular class or group of people, especially that of an underworld group, devised for private communication and identification:a Restoration play rich in thieves' argot. Of reality as it did for the superior individual to suffer at all term... Knowledge consists of empty space and ultimately simple entities that combine to form objects is known _____. Is merely one experience alongside others has not makes right and predictions, or understanding was invented mock! 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